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THE BOOK

OF

SER MARCO POLO,

THE VENETIAN,

Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East.

NEWLY TRANSLATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES.

By COLONEL HENRY YULE, C.B.,

LATE OF THE ROYAL ENGINEERS (BENGAL),

HON. FELLOW OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF ITALY.

IN TWO VOLUMES.— Vol. II.

WITH MAPS , AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS.

LONDON :

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1871.

7 he right of Translatio?i is reserved.

LONDON:

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, AND CHARING CROSS.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

Explanatory List of Illustrations

Page

xvi

BOOK SECOND.

(Continued.)

PART II.

Journey to the West and South - West of Cathay.

Chap.

XXXV. Here begins the Description of the Interior of

Cathay ; and first of the River Pulisanghin i Note. The Bridge Pul-i-sangin , or Lu-kyu-kao.

XXXVI. Account of the City of Juju . 4

Notes. i. The Silks called Sendals. 2. Chochau. 3. Bifitrcation of Two Great Roads at this point.

XXXVII. The Kingdom of Taianfu . 6

Notes. 1. Acbaluc. 2. Thai-yuanfu. 3. Grape-wine of that place.

4. PHngyangfu.

XXXVIII. Concerning the Castle of Caichu. The Golden

King and Prtster John . 8

Notes. 1. The Story of the Roi d’Or. 2. Effeminacy reviving in every Chinese Dynasty.

XXXIX. How Prester John treated the Golden King his

Prisoner . 1 1

XL. Concerning the Great River Caramoran and

the City of Cachanfu . 12

Notes. 1. The Karamuren. 2. The akche or asper,

XLI. Concerning the City of Kenjanfu . 13

Notes. 1. Geography of the Route since Chapter XXXVIII. 2. Kenjanfu or Singanfu. 3. Prince Mangala.

XLI I. Concerning the Province of Cuncun, which is

RIGHT WEARISOME TO TRAVEL THROUGH . 1 7

Notes. i. The Mountain Road to Southern Shensi. 2. Wild animals.

a 1

iv CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

Chap. Page

XLI 1 1.— Concerning the Province of Acbalec Manzi.. .. 19

Notes. 1. Geography, atid doubts about Acbalec. 2. Farther Journey into Ssechuen.

XLI V.— Concerning the Province of Sindafu . 22

Notes. 1. Chingtufu. 2. The Great River or Kiang. 3. The word Comereque. 4. The Bridge-Tolls. 5. Correction of Text.

XLV. Concerning the Province of Tebet . 26

Notes. 1. The Part of Tibet and events referred to. 2. Noise of burning bamboos. 3. Road retains its desolate character. 4. Persistence of eccentric manners ilhistrated. 5. Name of the

Musk animal.

XLVI.— Further Discourse concerning Tebet . 31

Notes. 1. Explanatory. 2. Or de Paliolle.” 3. Cinnamon.

4. 5- Great Dogs.

XLVI I.— Concerning the Province of Caindu . 34

Notes. 1. Explanation from Ramusio. 2. Pearls of hiland Waters. 3. Lax manners. 4. Exchange of Salt for Gold.

5. Salt Currency. 6. Plant like the Clove spoken of by Polo.

Tribes of this Tract.

XLV III.— Concerning the Province of Carajan . 39

Notes. 1. Geography of the Route between Sindafu or Chingtufu , and Carajan or Yunnan. 2. Christians and Mahoniedans in Yunnan. 3. Wheat. 4. Cowries. 5. Brine-spring. 6. Parallel.

XLIX. Concerning a further part of the Province of

Carajan . . .. 45

Notes. 1. City of Talifu. 2. Alligators. 3. Yunnan horses and riders. Arms of the Aboriginal Tribes. 4. Strange superstition.

L. Concerning the Province of Zardandan . 52

Notes. 1. The Gold -Teeth. 2. Male Indolence. 3. The Couvade.

4. Abundance of Gold. Relation of Gold to Silver. 5. Wor¬ ship of the Ancestor. 6. Tallies. 7-10. Medicine-men of- Devil-dancers ; extraordinary identity of practice in various . regions.

LI. Wherein is related how the King of Mien and Bangala vowed vengeance against the Great

Kaan . 62

Notes. 1. Chronology. 2. Mien or Burma. Why the King may have . been called King of Bengal also. 3. N timbers alleged to have been carried on elephants.

LIL— Of the Battle that was fought by the Great Kaan’s Host and his Seneschal against the King of Mien . 66

Notes. 1. Nasruddin. 2. Chinese account of the Action. General Correspondence of the Chinese and Burmese Chronologies.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II. v

Chap. Page

LI 1 1.— Of the Great Descent that leads towards the

Kingdom of Mien . 70

Notes. 1. Market-Days. 2. Geographical difficulties.

LIV. Concerning the City of Mien, and the Two Towers that are therein, one of Gold, and. the other of Silver . 72

Notes. 1. Amien. 2. Chinese Account of the Invasion of Burma. Co7nparison with Bur77iese An7ials. The City inte7ided. The

Pagodas. 3. Wild Oxen.

LV. Concerning the Province of Bangala . 7 8

Notes. 1. Polo's view of Bengal ; and details of his account illus¬ trated. 2. Great Cattle.

LVI.— Discourses of the Province of Caugigu . 80

Note. A Paid of Laos. Papesifu. Chmese Etymologies.

LVI I.— Concerning the Province of Anin . 82

Notes. 1. The Name. Probable ide7itification of tei'ritory. 2. Textual.

LVIII. Concerning the Province of Coloman . 85

Notes. 1. The Na77ie. The Kolo-7nan . 2. Natural defences of

Kweichau.

LIX. Concerning the Province of Cuiju . 88

Notes. 1. Kweichau. Phwigan-lu. 2. Grass-cloth. 3. Tigers. 4. Great Dogs. 5. Silk. 6. Geog7'aphical Review of the Route smce Chapter L V.

BOOK SECOND.

( Continued .)

PART III.

Journey Southward through Eastern Provinces of Cathay and

Manzi.

LX. Concerning the Cities of Cacanfu and Changlu 95

Notes. 1. Pauthier's Identificatio7is. 2. Changlu. The Burning of the Dead ascribed to the Chmese.

LXI. Concerning the City of Chinangli, and that of

Tadinfu, and the Rebellion of Litan . 97

Notes. 1. Thsinanfu. 2. Silk of Shantung. 3. Title Sangon.

4. Agul and Mangkutai. 5. History of Litan' s Revolt.

vi CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

Chap. Page

LXI I.— Concerning the Noble City of Sinjumatu .. .. ioo

Note. The City intended. The Great Canal.

LXI 1 1— Concerning the Cities of Linju and Piju .. .. 102

Notes. 1. Linjtt. 2. Piju.

LXIV.— Concerning the City of Siju and the Great

River Caramoran . 103

Notes. 1. Siju. 2. The Hoang-Ho and its changes. 3. Entrance to Manzi; that name for Southern China.

LXV.— How the Great Kaan conquered the Province

of Manzi .. .. . . 107

Notes. i. Meaning and application of the Title Faghfur. 2. Chinese self devotion. 3. Bayan the Great Captain. 4. His lines of operation. 5. The Juggling Prophecy. 6. The Fall of the Sung Dynasty. 7. Exposure of Infants , and Foundling

Hospitals.

LXVI. Concerning the City of Coiganju .. .. .. .. 114

N ote. Hwai-ngan -fu.

LXVII. Of the Cities of Paukin and Cayu . 115

Note. Pao-yng and Kao-yu.

LXVI II. Of the Cities of Tiju, Tinju, and Yanju . 116

Notes. 1. Cities between the Canal and the Sea. 2. Yangchau.

3. Marco Polo's Employment at this City.

LXIX.— Concerning the City of Nanghin . .. 118

N ote. Nganking.

LXX. Concerning the Very Noble City of Saianfu, and

how its Capture was effected . . 119

Notes. I and 2. Various Readings. 3. Digression on the Military Engines of the Middle Ages. 4. Romance of Cceur de Lion.

5. Difficulties connected with Polo's Account of this Siege.

LXXI.— Concerning the City of Sinju and the Great

River Kian . 132

Notes.- 1. Ichin-hien. 2. The -Great Kiang. 3. Vast amount of tonnage on Chinese waters. 4. Size of River Vessels. 5. Bamboo Tozv -lines. 6. Picturesque Island Monasteries.

LXXIL— Concerning the City of Caiju . 136

Notes.— 1. Kwa-chau. 2. The Grand Canal and Rice-Transport.

3. The Galden Island.

LXXI II. Of the City of Chinghianfu .. .. . . 139

Note. Chinkiangfu.. Mar Sarghis, the Christian Governor.

LXXIV. Of the City of Chinginju and the Slaughter of

certain Alans there . 140

Notes. 1. Changchau. 2. Employment of Alans in the Mongol Service. 3. The Changchau Massacre. Mongol Cruelties,

CONTENTS OF VOL. II. vu

Chap. Page

LXXV.— Of the Noble City of Suju . 142

Notes. 1 . Suchau. 2. Bridges of that part of China. 3. Rhubarb ; its mention here seems erroneous. 4. The Cities of Heaven and Earth. 5. Huchau , Wukiang , and Kyahing.

LXXVI. Description of the Great City of Kinsay, which

is the Capital of the whole Country of Manzi 145 Notes. 1. Ringsze, now Hangchau. 2. The circuit ascribed to the City ; the Bridges. 3. Hereditary Trades. 4. The Si-hu or Western Lake. 5. Dressiness of the People. 6. Charitable Establishments. 7. Paved roads. 8. Hot and Cold Baths.

9. Kanpu , and the Hangchau Estuary. 10. The A ine Pro¬ vinces of Manzi. 11. The Kaan's Garrisons in Manzi. 12. Mourning costume. 13. 14. Remains of the Nestorian Church.

15. Tickets recording inmates of houses.

LXXVII. [Further Particulars concerning the Great

City of Kinsay] . 158

(From Ramusio only.)

Notes. 1. Remarks on these supplementary details. 2. Tides in the Hangchau Estuary. 3. Want of a good Survey of Hangchau.

4. Marco ignores pork. 5. Great Pears ; Peaches. 6. Textual.

7. Chinese use of Pepper. 8. Chinese claims to a character for Good Faith. 9. Pleasure-parties on the Lake. 10. Chinese Carriages. II. The Sung Emperor. 12. The Sung Palace. Extracts regarding this Great City from other medieval writers , European and Asiatic. Martini's Description.

LXXVIII. Treating of the Yearly Revenue that the

Great Kaan hath from Kinsay . 17 1

Notes. 1. Textual. 2. Calculations as to the values spoken of.

LXXIX.— Of the City of Tanpiju and Others . 175

Notes. 1. Route from Hangchau southward. 2. Bamboos. 3. Ldentification of places. Changshan the key to the route.

LXXX. Concerning the Kingdom of Fuju . 179

Notes. 1. Fruit like Saffron .” 2. 3. Cannibalism ascribed to

Mountain Tribes on this route. 4. Kienningfu. 5. Galin- gale. 6. Fleecy Fowls. 7. Details of the Journey in Fokien and various readings. 8. Unken. Lniroduction of Sugar¬ refining into China.

LXXXI.— Concerning the Greatness of the City of Fuju 183

Notes. 1. The name Chonka, applied to Fokien here. 2. The River of Fuchau. 3. Explanatory.

LXXXII. Of the City and Great Haven of Zayton .. .. 185

Notes. 1. The Camphor Laurel. 2. The Port of Zayton or Thsiuanchau. Probable origin of the word Satin. 3. Artists in Tattooing. 4. Position of the Porcelain manufacture spoken of. Notions regarding the Great River of China. 5. Fokien dialect and great varieties of spoken language in China. 6.

From Ramusio.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

viii

BOOK THIRD.

Chap. Page

I Of the Merchant Ships of Manzi that sail upon

the Indian Seas . 195

Notes. 1. Pine Timber. 2. Rudder and Masts. 3. Watertight Compartments. 4. Chinese substitute for Pitch. 5. Oars used by fmks. 6. Descriptions of Chinese funks from other Medieval Writers.

II. Description of the Island of Chipangu, and the

Great Kaan’s Despatch of a Host against it .. 199

Notes. 1. Chipangu or Japan. 2. Abundance of Gold. 3. The Golden Palace. 4. Japanese Pearls. Red Pearls.

III.— What further came of the Great Kaan’s Expedi¬ tion against Chipangu . 203

Notes. 1. Kublai's attempts against Japan. Japanese Narrative of the Expedition here spoken of. 2. Species of Torture. 3. Devices to procure Invulnerability.

IV. Concerning the Fashion of the Idols . 208

Notes. 1. Many -limbed Idols. 2. The Philippines and Moluccas.

3. The name Chin or China. 4. The Gulf of Cheinan.

V. Of the Great Country called Chamba . 212

Notes. 1. Champa, and Kublai's dealings with it. 2. Chronology.

3. Eagle-wood and Ebony. Polo's use of Persian words.

VI. Concerning the Great Island of Java . 217

Note. Java ; its supposed vast extent. Kublai's expedition against it and failure.

VII.— Wherein the Isles of Sondur and Condur are

SPOKEN OF; AND THE KINGDOM OF LOCAC . 2l8

Notes. 1. Textual. 2. Pulo Condore. 3. The Kingdom of Locac, Southern Siam.

VIII. Of the Island called Pentam, and the City Malaiur 223 Notes.— 1. B intang. 2. The Straits of Singapore. 3. Remarks on the Malay Chronology. Malaiur probably Palembang.

IX.— Concerning the Island of Java the Less. The

Kingdoms of Ferlec and Basma . 226

Notes.— 1. The Island of Sumatra; application of the terjn Java.

2. Products of Sumatra. The six kingdoms. 3. Ferlec or Parldk. The Battas. 4. Basma , Pacem , or Pasei. 5. The Elephant and the Rhinoceros. The Legend of Monoceros and the Virgin . 6. Black Falcon.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

IX

Chap. Page

X.— The Kingdoms of Samara and Dagroian . 235

Notes.— 1. Samara , Sumatra Proper. 2. The Tramontaine and the Mesire. 3. The Malay Toddy- Palm. 4. Dagroian. 5. Alleged custom of eating dead relatives.

XI. Of the Kingdoms of Lambri and Fansur . 241

Notes. 1. Lambri . 2. Hairy and Tailed Men. 3. Fansur and

Camphor Fansuri. Sumatran Camphor. 4. The Sago-Palm.

5. Remarks on Polo's Sumatran Kingdoms.

XII. Concerning the Island of Necuveran . 248

Note. Gctuenispola, and the Nicobar Islands.

XIII. Concerning the Island of Angamanain . 251

Note. The Andaman Islands.

XIV. Concerning the Island of Seilan . 253

NOTES. I. Exaggeration of Dimensions. The Name. 2. Sovereigns then ruling Ceylon. 3. Brazil Wood and Cinna7non. 4. The Great Ruby.

XV. — The same continued. The History of Sagamoni

Borcan and the Beginning of Idolatry .. .. 256

Notes. 1. Adam's Peak, and the Foot thereon. 2. The Story of Sakya-Muni Buddha. The History of Saints Barlaam and fosaphat a Christianized version thereof. 3. High Estimate of Buddha's Character. 4. Curious Parallel Passages. 5. Pilgrimages to the Peak. 6. The Pdtra of Buddha , and the Tooth- Relic. 7. Miraculous endowments of the Pdtra; it is the Holy Grail of Buddhism.

XVI. — Concerning the Great Province of Maabar, which

is called India the Greater, and is on the

Main Land . 266

Notes. 1. Ma'bar, its definition, and notes on its Medieval History.

2. The Pearl Fishery.

XVII Continues to speak of the Province of Maabar.. 274 Notes. 1. Costume. 2. Hindu royal necklace. 3. Hindu use of the Rosary. 4. The Saggio. 5. Companions in Death ; the word Amok. 6. Accumulated Wealth of Southern India at this time.

7. Horse Importation from the Persian Gulf. 8. Religious Suicides. 9. Stittees. 10. Worship of the Ox. The Govis.

11. Verbal. 12. The Thomacides. 13. Ill success of horse- breeding in S. India. 14. Curious Mode of Arrest for Debt.

15. The Rainy Seasons. 16. Omens of the Hindus. 17. Strange treatment of Horses. 18. The Devaddsis. 19. Textual.

XVIII. Discoursing of the Place where lieth the body of St. Thomas the Apostle ; and of the Miracles

thereof . 290

Notes. 1. Mailapiir. 2. The word Avarian. 3. Miraculous Earth. 4. The Tradition of St. Thomas in India. The ancient Church at his Tomb. 5. White Devils. 6. The Yak's Tail.

X

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

Chap. Page

XIX. Concerning the Kingdom of Mutfili . 295

Notes. 1. Motapalle. The Widow Queen of Telingana. 2. The Diamond Mines, and the Legend of the Diamond Gathering.

3. Buckram.

XX.— Concerning the Province of Lar whence the

Brahmins come . 298

Notes. 1. Abraiaman. The Country of Lar. Hindu character.

2. The Kingdovi of Soli or Chola. 3. Lucky and Unlucky Days and Hours. The Canonical Hours of the church. 4. Omens. 5. Jogis. The Ox-emblem. 6. Verbal. 7. Recur¬ rence of human eccentricities.

XXI. Concerning the City of Cail . 305

Notes. 1. Kayal ; its true position. Kolkhoi identified. 2. The King A shar. 3. Betel-chezving. 4. Duels.

XXII. Of the Kingdom of Coilum . 312

Notes. 1. Coilum , Coilon, Kaulam, Columbum, Quilon. 2. Brazil Wood; notes on the name. 3. Columbine Ginger and other kinds. 4. Lndigo. 5. Black Lions. 6. Marriage customs.

XXIII.— Of the Country called Comari . . 318

Notes. 1. Cape Comorin. 2. The word Gat-paul.

XXIV.— Concerning the Kingdom of Eli . 320

Notes. 1. Mount D' Ely, and the City of Hili-Marawi. 2.

Textual. 3. Produce. 4. Piratical custom. 5. Ancient

account of the Ports here. Wooden Anchors.

XXV. Concerning the Kingdom of Melibar . 324

Notes. 1. Dislocation of Polo's Lndian Geography. Malabar. 2. Verbal. 3. Pirates. 4. Cassia; Turbit ; Cubebs. 5. Cessa¬ tion of direct Chinese trade with Malabar.

XXVI. Concerning the Kingdom of Gozurat . 328

Notes. 1. Topographical Confusion. 2. Tall Cotton Trees. 3. Embroidered Leather-work.

XXVI 1. Concerning the Kingdom of Tana . 330

Notes. 1. Tana, and the Konkan. 2. Lncense of Western India.

XXVIII.— Concerning the Kingdom of Cambaet . 332

N ote. Cambay.

XXIX. Concerning the Kingdom of Semenat . 334

N ote. Somnath.

XXX.— Concerning the Kingdom of Kesmacoran .. .. 334

Notes. 1. Kij-Mekran. Limit of India. 2. Recapitulation of Polo's Indian Kingdoms.

XXXI. Discourseth of the Two Islands called Male and

Female, and why they are so called . 337

Note. The Legend and its diffusion.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II. xi

Chap. Page

XXXII.— Concerning the Island of Scotra . . .. 340

Notes. 1. Whales of the Indian Seas. 2. Socotra and its former Christianity . 3. Piracy at Socotra. 4. Sorceries.

XXXIII.— Concerning the Island of Madeigascar .. .. 345

Notes. 1. Madagascar ; some confusion here tvith Magadoxo. 2. Sandalwood. 3. Whale-killing. The Capidoglio or Sperm- Whale. 4. The Currents of the South. 5. The Rukh. 6.

More on the dimensions assigned thereto. 7- Hippopotamus teeth.

XXXIV. Concerning the Island of Zanghibar. A word

on India in general . 355

Notes. 1. Za?tgibar ; Negroes. 2. Ethiopian Sheep. 3. Giraffes.

4. Ivory trade. 5. Error about Elephant-taming. 6. Num¬ ber of Islands assigned to the Indian Sea. 7. The Three Indies , and various distributions thereof. Polo's Indian Geo¬ graphy.

XXXV. Treating of the Great Province of Abash, which

is Middle India, and is on the Main Land .. 360

Notes. 1. Habsh or Abyssinia. Application of the name India to it. 2. Fire- Baptism ascribed to the Abyssinian Christians.

3. Polo's idea of the position of Aden. 4. Taming of the A frican Elephant for War. 5. Marco's Story of the Abys¬ sinian Invasion of the Mahojnedan Low- Country , and Review of Abyssinian Chronology in connexion therewith. 6. Textual.

XXXVI. Concerning the Province of Aden . 373

Notes. 1. The Trade to Alexandria from India via Aden. 2.

Roncins a deux selles.” 3. The Sultan of Aden. The City and its Great Tanks. 4. The Loss of Acre.

XXXVII. Concerning the City of Esher . 377

Notes. 1. Shihr. 2. Frankincense. 3. Four-horned Sheep. 4.

Cattle fed on Fish. 5. Parallel passage.

XXXVIII.— Concerning the City of Dufar . .. 379

Note. Dhofar.

XXXIX. Concerning the Gulf of Calatu, and the City

SO CALLED . .. .. . 381

Notes. 1. Kalhdt. 2. En fra terre.” 3. Maskat.

XL. Returns to the City of Hormos whereof we

SPOKE FORMERLY . 383

Notes. 1. Polo' s distances and bearings in these latter chapters. 2. Persian Bad-girs or ventilating chimneys. 3. Island of Kish.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

xii

BOOK FOURTH.

Wars among the Tartar Princes, and some Account of the Northern Countries .

Chap. Page

I. Concerning Great Turkey . 387

Notes. I. Kaidu Khan. 2. His frontier towards the Great Kaan.

II. — Of certain Battles that were fought by King

Caidu against the Armies of his Uncle the

Great Kaan . 389

Notes. 1. Textual. 2. “Araines.” 3. Chronology in connexion with the events described.

III. f What the Great Kaan said to the Mischief done

by Caidu his Nephew . 393

IV. Of the Exploits of King Caidu’s valiant Daughter 393

Note. Her name explained. Remarks on the story.

V. How Abaga sent his son Argon in command against

King Caidu . 396

( Extract and Substance.)

Notes. 1. The Arbre Sol or Sec ; addition to former note thereon.

2. The Historical Events.

VI. How Argon after the Battle heard that his Father was dead and went to assume the

Sovereignty as was his right . 398

Notes. 1. Death of Abaka. 2. Textual. 3. Ahmad Tigudar.

VII. — f How Acomat Soldan set out with his host

AGAINST HIS NEPHEW WHO WAS COMING TO CLAIM THE THRONE THAT BELONGED TO HIM . 399

VIII. — f How Argon took Counsel with his Followers

ABOUT ATTACKING HIS UNCLE ACOMAT SOLDAN .. 400

IX. fHow the Barons of Argon answered his Address 400

X. f The Message sent by Argon to Acomat . 400

XI. How Acomat replied to Argon's Message . 400

XII. Of the Battle between Argon and Acomat, and

the Captivity of Argon . 401

Notes. 1. Verbal. 2. Historical.

t Of chapters so marked nothing is given but the substance in brief.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II. xni

Chap. Pagk

XIII. How Argon was delivered from Prison . 402

XIV. How Argon got the Sovereignty at last .. .. 403

XV. fHow Acomat was taken Prisoner . 404

XVI. How Acomat was slain by order of his Nephew.. 404 XVII. How Argon was recognized as Sovereign .. .. 405

Notes. 1. The historical circumstances and persons named in these chapters. 2. A rghttn's accession and death.

XVIII.— How Kiacatu seized the Sovereignty after Argon’s

Death . 406

Note. The reign and character of Kaikhatu.

XIX. How Baidu seized the Sovereignty after the

Death of Kiacatu . 407

Notes. 1. Baidu's alleged Christianity. 2. Ghazan Khan.

XX.— Concerning King Conchi who rules the Far

North . 410

Notes. 1. Kaunchi Khan. 2. Siberia. 3. Dog-sledges. 4. The animal here styled Erculin. The Vair. 5. Yugria.

XXL— Concerning the Land of Darkness . 414

Notes. 1. The Land of Darkness. 2. The Legend of the Mares and their Foals. 3. Dumb Trade with the People of the Darkness.

XXII. Description of Rosia and its People. Province

of Lac . 417

Notes. 1. Old Accounts of Russia. Russian Silver and Rubles.

2. Lac , or Great Wallachia. 3. Oroech , Norway (?) or the IVaraeg Country (?).

XXIII.— He begins to speak of the Straits of Constan¬ tinople, BUT DECIDES TO LEAVE THAT MATTER .. 42 1

XXIV.— Concerning the Tartars of the Ponent and their

Lords . 421

Notes. 1. The Comanians ; the Alans ; Majar ; Zic ; the Goths of the Crimea; Gazaria. 2. The Khans of Kipchak or the Golden Horde ; errors in Polo's list. Extent of their Empire.

XXV.— Of the War that arose between Alau and Barca,

and the Battles that they fought . 424

( Extracts and Substance.)

Notes. 1. Verbal. 2. The Sea of Sarai. 3. The War here spoken of. Wassdfs rigmarole.

XXVI. fHow Barca and his Army advanced to meet

Alau . 425

f Of chapters so marked nothing is given but the substance in brief

xiv CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

Chap. Page

XXVII— t How ALAU ADDRESSED HIS FOLLOWERS . 426

XXVIII. f Of the Great Battle between Alau and Barca 426

XXIX. How Totamangu was Lord of the Tartars of the

PONENT ; AND AFTER HIM TOCTAI . 426

Notes. _ i. Confusions in the Text. Historical circumstances con¬

nected with the Persons spoken of. Toktai and Noghai Khan. Symbolic Messages.

XXX.— f Of the Second Message that Toctai sent to

Nogai . 429

XXXI.— f How Toctai marched against Nogai . 429

XXXII. fHow Toctai and Nogai address their People,

AND THE NEXT DAY JOIN BATTLE . 429

XXXIII.— f The Valiant Feats and Victory of King Nogai 430 XXXIV. and Last. Conclusion . 430

APPENDICES.

A. Genealogy of the House of Chinghiz to the End of the Thirteenth

Century . . 435

B. The Polo Families :

(I.) Genealogy of the Family of Marco Polo the Traveller .. 436 (II.) The Polos of San Geremia . 437

C. Calendar of Documents relating to Marco Polo and his Family .. 438

D. Comparative Specimens of the Different Recensions of Polo’s

T ext . 445

E. Preface to Pipino’s Latin Version . 448

F. List of MSS. of Marco Polo’s Book, so far as known . 449

G. Diagram showing Filiation of Chief MSS. and Editions of Marco

Polo . 463

"f Of chapters so marked nothing is given but the substance in brief.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II. xv

Page

H. Bibliography :

(I.) Principal Editions of Marco Polo’s Book . 464

(II.) Titles of Sundry Books and Papers treating of Marco

Polo and his Book . 465

I. Titles of Books quoted by Abbreviated References in this Work .. 469

K. Values of Certain Moneys, Weights, and Measures occurring in

this Book . 471

L. Alleged Invention of Movable Types by Panfilo Castaldi of Feltre 473

M. Supplementary Notes to the Book of Marco Polo. Char chan ,

Pein , and Bolor. List of Indian Provinces . 475

Index . 477

EXPLANATORY LIST OL ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOLUME II.

INSERTED PLATES AND MAPS.

. . ( In a \ The Rue’s Egg. Measured and drawn by the Editor from the

rontisptece ^oc^j Egg Gf Aepyornis maximns in the British Museum.

To face page 16. The Celebrated Christian Inscription of Singanfu. Photo- lithographed from a rubbing of the original stone, given to the Editor by William Lockhart , Esq .

,, ,, 73. The City of Mien, with the Gold and Silver Towers. From a

drawing by the Editor, based upon his sketches of the remains of the City so called by Marco Polo, viz,, Pagan, the medieval capital of Burma.

,, ,, 92. Itineraries of Marco Polo. No. V. The Indo-Chinese Coun¬

tries.

,, ,, 145. Plan of the City of Hangchau, from Chinese sources. This was

chiefly taken from a Chinese Map of the City, belonging to Dr. Lockhart, but with some particulars also from a Plan of the City, and another of the Lake Si-hu, in the Chinese Topo¬ graphical History called Hang-chau-fu-Chi, in the British Museum.

,, ,, 192. Itineraries of Marco Polo. No. VI. The Journey through

Kiangnan, Chekiang, and Fokien.

[1. Map to illustrate Marco Polo’s Chapters on the Malay

,, ,, 250.] Countries.

(2. Map to illustrate his Chapters on Southern India.

1. Sketch showing the Position of Kayal in Tinnevelly, the Cail of Marco Polo.

2. Map to illustrate the position of the Kingdom of Ely in Malabar.

WOODCUTS PRINTED WITH THE TEXT.

Page 2. The Bridge of Pulisanghin, the Lu kyu kiao of the Chinese. Reduced from a large Chinese Engraving in the Geographical Work called Ki- fou-thoung-tcJu\ in the Paris Library. For the indication of the exist¬ ence of this, and of the Portrait of Kublai Kaan in vol. i., I am in¬ debted to notes in M. Pauthier’s edition.

,, 15. Plan of Kychau. After Duhalde.

,, 51. The Sangmiau Tribe, of Kweichau, with the Crossbow. From a coloured

drawing in a Chinese Work on the Aboriginal Tribes belonging to

W. Lockhart , Esq.

,, 75. The Palace at Amarapura in 1855. Borrowed from Fergusson’s H. of

Architecture (but Mr. Fergusson’s cut is taken from a drawing by the present Editor).

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOL. II.

XVII

Page 87.

» 93-

123.

132.

135-

, 139-

192.

194-

,, 202.

, , 206.

,, 216.

» 233.

VOL.

The Koloman. After a Chinese drawing in the Book belonging to W. Lockhart, Esq.

Incised Cross at the top of the celebrated Christian Inscription of Sin- ganfu, dating from A.D. 781. From a photographic copy of a pencil rubbing made on the original by the Rev. J. Lees. The copy was taken by Mr. A. Wylie, and lent by him to the Editor.

Medieval Artillery Engines. Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are Chinese. The first four are from the Encyclopaedia San-Thsai-Thou-hoei (Paris Li¬ brary), the last from Amyot , vol. viii.

Figs. 6, 7, 8 are Saracen. 6 and 7 are taken from the work of Reinaud and Fave , Du Feu Gregeois , and by them from the Arabic MS. of Hassan al Raumah (Arad. Anc. Fonds , No. 1127). Fig. 8 is from Lord Munster's Arabic Catalogue of Military Works, and by him from a MS. of RashiduddirC s History.

The remainder are European. Fig. 9 is from Pertz, Scriplores, vol. xviii., and by him from a figure of the Siege of Arbicella, 1227, in a MS. of Genoese Annals (No. 773> Supp. Lat. of Bib. Imp.). Fig. 10 from Shaw's Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages, vol. i. No. 21, after B. Mus. MS. Reg. 16, G. vi. Fig. 11 from Pertz as above, under a.d. 1182. Fig. 12 from Valturius de Re Militari, Verona, 1483. Figs. 13 and 14 from the Poliorceticon of Justus Lipsius. Fig. 15 is after the Bodleian MS. of the Romance of Alexander (a.d. 1338), but is taken from the Gentleman s Magazine , 3rd ser. vol. vii. p. 467. Fig. 16 from Lacroix’s Art au Moyen Age, after a miniature of 13th cent, in the Paris Library. Figs. 17 and 18 from the Emperor Napoleon’s Etudes de V Ar tiller ie, and by him taken from the MS. of Paulus San- tinus (Lat. MS. 7329 in Paris Library). Fig. 19 from Professor Moseley’s restoration of a Trebuchet, after the data in the Medieval Note-book of Villars de Honcourt, in Gentleman' s Magazine as above. Figs. 20 and

. 21 from the Emperor’s Book. Fig. 22 from a German MS. in the Bern Library, the Chronicle of Justinger and Schilling.

Coin from a Treasure hidden at Siangyang during the siege described by Marco Polo, and recently discovered. From the original in the pos¬ session of Mr. Wylie. The inscribed characters are 4 Ching-Ho (Designation of Epoch, a.d. 1100-1125) and Tung-Paou" (“Current Money”).

Island Monasteries in the Yangtse Kiaiig. The first is the “Little Orphan Rock,” after a cut in Oliphant's Narrative ; the second is the Golden Island,” after Fisher's China; the third, “Silver Island,” after Mr. Lindley’s book on the Taipings. By an accidental error the Golden Island has been reversed.

The West Gate of Chinkiangfu. From an engraving in Fisher's China, after a sketch made during the first Chinese War by Capt. Stod- dart, R.N.

The Kaan’s Fleet leaving the Port of Zayton. The landscape is from an engraving in Fisher's China , after a sketch by Capt. Stoddart of the Mouth of the River of Chinchau, i. e., of Zayton.

The Kaan’s Fleet passing through the Indian Archipelago. From a drawing by the Editor.

Ancient Japanese Emperor. From a native drawing. Borrowed from the Tour du Monde.

Ancient Japanese Archer. From a native drawing. Borrowed from the Tour du Monde.

Java. Ceste Ysle est de moult grant richesse." From a sketch of the slopes of the Gedeh Volcano, taken by the Editor in i860.

The Three Asiatic Rhinoceroses. Adapted from a proof of a woodcut given to the Editor for the purpose by Mr. Edward Blyth, the eminent

11. b

xviii

Page 234.

,, 265.

,, 273.

289. ,, 292.

319-

349.

358.

376.

384-

419-

431-

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOL. II.

Zoologist. It is not known to the present Editor whether the cut has. appeared in any publication.

Monoceros and the Maiden. From a medieval drawing engraved in Cahier et Martin , Melanges d' Archeologie, II. PI. 30.

Teeth of Buddha. 1. The Tooth at Candy, after Tennent's Ceylon. 2.

Tooth at Fuchau, from Fortune's Wanderings.

Chinese Pagoda (so-called) at Negapatam. From a sketch taken in 1846 by Sir Walter Elliott, K.C.S.I.

Pagoda at Tanjore. Borrowed from Fergusson's H. of Architecture.

The Little Mount near Madras ; the site of the Ancient Church, and tra¬ ditionally of St. Thomas’s martyrdom. After Daniel (II. PL X.).

N.B.— The Editor with some trouble procured from India a photo¬ graph of the Church as it stands ; but the buildings having been reno¬ vated, apparently on the standard pattern of a barrack guard-room, it became necessary to fall back upon Daniel for a juster illustration.

Cape Comorin. From an original sketch by Mr. Foote of the Geological Survey of India.

The lofty mountain represented in Daniel’s Views (IV. PI. I.) as Cape Comorin is not really the Cape (as indeed his Text explains), though perhaps called so by seamen.

Mount d’Ely, from the sea.

This is taken from a chart view of last century by J. Lindley, as all endeavours to obtain a more recent and satisfactory drawing had failed. After this had been engraved the Editor received from his friend Mr. Oldham, as in the last case, a good drawing of Mount D’Ely by Mr. Foote. Though unfortunately too late to be made use of, it confirms the general truth of the present engraving.

The Rukh, after a Persian drawing. Borrowed from Lane's Arabian Nights. Search has been made in vain, at the Royal Asiatic Society’s Library, for the original drawing from which Mr. Lane had this engrav¬ ing made.

The Ethiopian Sheep. From an original sketch by Miss Catharine Frere.

View of Aden. From a drawing in the Library of the Royal Geographical Society, made by Dr. Kirk in 1840.

A Persian Badgir or Wind-Tower. From a drawing in the Atlas to

Hommaire de Hell.

A Medieval Russian Church (viz. near Tzarkoe Selo). Borrowed from

Fergusson' s H. of Architecture.

Two Oriental Warriors, circa 1300. From a drawing in the Fragmentary MS. of Rashiduddin’s History, in the Library of the Royal Asiatic Society, which is believed to date from the Author’s own day. The kind of mail worn by one of these warriors corresponds to the descrip¬ tions, in Carpini and others, of that worn by the Tartar Chiefs; and the figures probably give a more authentic representation than is elsewhere to be had of the costume of the warriors commemorated in the latter chapters of Polo’s work.

BOOK SECOND— continued.

Part II.— JOURNEY TO THE WEST AND SOUTH¬ WEST OF CATHAY.

vol. n

THE

BOOK OF MARCO POLO.

BOOK II. CONTINUED .

Part II.— JOURNEY TO THE WEST AND SOUTH-WEST OF CATHAY.

CHAPTER XXXV.

Here begins the Description of the Interior of Cathay ; and

FIRST OF THE RlVER PULISANGHIN.

Now you must know that the Emperor sent the aforesaid Messer Marco Polo, who is the author of this whole story, on business of his into the Western Provinces. On that occasion he travelled from Cambaluc a good four months’ journey towards the west. And so now I will tell you all that he saw on his travels as he went and returned.

When you leave the City of Cambaluc and have ridden ten miles, you come to a very large river which is called Pulisanghin, and flows into the ocean, so that merchants with their merchandize ascend it from the sea. Over this River there is a very fine stone bridge, so fine indeed that it has very few equals. The fashion of it is this : it is 300 paces in length, and it must have a good eight paces of width, for ten mounted men can ride across it abreast. It has 24 arches and as many water-mills, and ’tis all of very

b 2

2

MARCO POLO.

Book II.

fine marble, well built and firmly founded. Along the top of the bridge there is on either side a parapet of marble slabs and columns, made in this way. At the beginning of the bridge there is a marble column, and under it a marble lion, so that the column stands upon the lion’s loins, whilst on the top of the column there is a second marble lion, both being of great size and beautifully executed sculpture. At the distance of a pace from this column there is another precisely the same, also with its two lions, and the space between them is closed with slabs of grey marble to prevent people from falling over into the water. And thus the columns run from space to space along either side of the bridge, so that altogether it is a beautiful object.1

The Bridge of Pulisanghin (reduced from a Chinese original).

Note 1. Piil-i-Scmgin , the name which Marco gives the River , means in Persian simply (as Marsden noticed) The Stone Bridge.” In a very different region the same name